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History

1869-1900

The story of public transportation in Savannah began in 1869 with the formation of the Savannah-Skidaway and Seaboard Railway Company. This railway company started to provide inter-city streetcar service by connecting downtown Savannah with the Isle of Hope, Skidaway Is­land, Thunderbolt, Montgomery Cross Road and the White Bluff area. The first cars were drawn by one horse each and had room for twelve seated passengers. The cars were heated by wood stoves, lighted by kerosene lamps and the horses wore bells to warn traffic of their approach. When the streetcar system began operation, residents who were previously unable to afford transportation welcomed the op­portunity to travel outside of Savannah for the purposes of residency, employment, and recreation.

In 1890, the first electric streetcar ran across the rails of the Savannah Street Railway. These streetcars were the marvel of the dawning electric age, and this form of trans­portation enabled Savannah to truly begin the extension of the city limits. As early as the turn of the last century, the streetcar barn was located on Gwinnett Street at Harmon where the current headquarters of the Chatham Area Transit Authority are now situated.

The coming of the twentieth century saw the consolida­tion of the major local railway properties under the newly created Savannah Electric Company which handled all lighting, power, and transit operations. The Savannah Elec­tric Company constructed amusement parks and casinos at Thunderbolt and Isle of Hope so crowds would have some place to go. The casino at Thunderbolt housed comic opera, vaudeville and even moving picture shows.

The early streetcars were staffed by a motorman who stood on an open platform. He wore a heavy wool blue coat and trousers year round. There was no heat on board and the motorman stood in a cardboard box with rags wrapped around his feet to stay warm during the colder months. Pas­sengers fared no better than the motorman as there was no heat in the streetcars.

1900-1980

The electric streetcars continued to flourish through the 1920’s and 1930’s but were eventually overtaken by buses going into the 1940’s. In January 1946, the Savannah Elec­tric and Power Company sold its holdings to the Savannah Transit Company (STC). On August 26, 1946, the last streetcar operated in Savannah. The streetcar on this last trip was driven by motorman Luther M. Page who had been driving since 1912. With the dawning of the gasoline-powered city bus, Mr. Page chose to retire rather than to learn how to drive a bus.

In 1951, the STC had a contest for the design of a new bus token. An azalea de­sign was chosen and 100,000 tokens were produced. Pas­sengers did not care for these tokens because they could not use a safety pin to secure the tokens on their shirt or jacket. A short time later, the STC ordered the azalea to­ken with a hole punched in the center and passengers were once again happy.

In July 1961, the Savannah Transit Authority (STA) was created by state legislation to take over for the private Sa­vannah Transit Company. At that time, transit operations were still a break-even and sometimes profit-making service. Both nationally and locally, rising labor, fuel and equipment costs, coupled with greater automobile availability and de­clining passenger levels through the 1960’s and 1970’s brought on the need for federal and local subsidies to keep the buses rolling for those who still needed and/or wanted to use transit. With federal and local funding support, the STA was able to continue stable operations until the early 80’s when only insufficient government funding was avail­able. The STA then entered the cycle of budget balancing annual fare increases and service cuts as experienced by many other transit systems around the nation.

1980-1990

In 1986, with steadily worsening operating and financial conditions, and recognizing the continuing community need for a reliable and affordable public transportation system, the Chatham Urban Transportation Study Policy Committee created a community-wide Transit Task Force charged with studying the local transit system and making recommenda­tions as to the future of public transportation in Savannah and Chatham County.

Parallel to this activity, state legislation pertaining to transit operations was passed that allowed for the possible establishment of a new transit authority, the creation of a transit service district, and the establishment of a dedicat­ed property tax to stabilize funding for its operations. The proposed transit system board would be made up of the nine Chatham County commissioners and three citizen ap­pointees. Funding was obtained for a study to identify the boundaries of a transit district, appropriate type and level of services, and required millage rates to support future stable transit operations. Under the approved state legislation, the adoption by the County Commissioners of a local ordinance creating a special district was the triggering mechanism to officially establish the new Chatham Area Transit Authority. Upon adoption of the local ordinance in 1986, the Savannah Transit Authority ceased to exist and the Chatham Area Transit Authority (CAT) officially came into existence on Janu­ary 9, 1987.

In March 1987, the CAT Board approved an expansion program increasing transit service as five new routes were added and service levels were improved on two existing routes. CAT reinstated both night and Sunday service. A fare reduction was instituted from 85 cents to 75 cents. Extensive marketing publicized the introduction of a multi-ride ticket program with convenient ticket outlets. A management ser­vice company was selected, and the arrival of 35 new Gillig buses changed CAT’s fleet from the oldest in the state to one of the newest in the nation. A new logo and color scheme were also implemented. During this same time, the CAT Board approved the establishment of the Teleride demand-response van service for citizens with disabilities who were unable to use the CAT fixed route bus service. Teleride is a shared-ride, advance reservation lift-equipped transportation service that is available to individuals with disabilities in Chatham County who are unable to use fixed route bus service as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA).

In 1989, the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) presented CAT with the “Outstanding Public Trans­portation Achievement Award” for small transit systems. This award acknowledged CAT as the best transit system in its size category in North America. Also during 1989, CAT installed 31 new bus shelters and over 90 new passenger benches. As a result of the bench and shelter program, CAT received an award from the Historic Savannah Foundation for “Enhancing the Quality of the Historic District.”

With increased hours of operation, quality customer service, and an outstanding safety record, ridership increased over 32 percent from 1987 to 1990. Revenue increased and CAT’s preventive maintenance and other cost-saving programs reduced its operating costs.

1990-2000

CAT’s annual ridership rose from 3.5 million trips in 1990 to 3.6 million in 1993. New buses replaced those older buses still in the pre-1987 fleet. Four new Teleride vans were purchased, increasing the fleet to fourteen.

In 1994, CAT’s service area expanded resulting in close to 90% of the residents of Chatham County living in the Tran­sit District. Late 1994 also saw the introduction of the electric-powered CAT Shuttle that circulated in Historic Downtown Savannah, and the first lift-equipped buses arrived. These lift-equipped buses expanded transportation options for people with disabilities. Also in 1994, fare realignment took place with the base fare increasing from 75 cents to $1.00. This was the first fare increase since 1986. Ridership rose from 3,600,000 in 1993 to 4,100,000 in 1994.

In 1995, discussions were initiated on the construction of a downtown transit center. Federal funding was allocated for the building of this center to provide the citizens of Cha­tham County with a consolidated, centrally located transit center while enhancing CAT’s existing and expanding transit services.

In 1996, CAT played a major role, in conjunction with the Chatham Emergency Management Agency (CEMA), in the mandatory evacuation of Chatham County citizens in preparation for Hurricane Fran.

In 1997, four 20-passenger diesel vans were purchased to replace the electric-powered CAT Shuttle buses as well as to augment service on other routes. With the arrival of these new vans, CAT had 32 lift-equipped vehicles in its 65-bus fleet. Of CAT’s 20 routes at that time, 15 were served by lift-equipped buses. Also in 1997, CAT initiated placement of new bus stop signs along some of its bus routes. These newly styled signs joined the orange bus standards which have been a Savan­nah landmark since the mid-1940’s.

In 1998, CAT developed its website, www.catchacat.org, which contains details about the transit system as well as route maps and schedules to assist site visitors with trip in­formation.

In 1999, CAT and the City of Savannah signed an agree­ment that allowed CAT to operate its downtown CAT Shuttle serving both residents and visitors fare-free.

2000-2010

The year 2000 marked new demands in flexibility for public transportation. In response to community requests, CAT installed bicycle racks on all buses in its fleet. This year also saw the completion of CAT’s strategic Transportation Development Plan (TDP). Recommendations from the TDP re­sulted in operations improvements and increased route efficiency.

In 2001, CAT purchased and placed into operation two trolley replicas on the CAT Shuttle route. The wheelchair-lift-equipped trolleys connect with most CAT routes in the down­town area and sport a distinctive Savannah green and gold design.

In 2003, the arrival of 31 new low floor replacement buses with a voice annunciation system for major stops made CAT’s fleet 100% lift equipped. That same year, CAT took over the operation of the Savannah Belles Ferry system with the construction and christening of the Juliette Gordon Low and the Susie King Taylor, two distinct ferry vessels. Daily, these vessels carry visitors, employees, and residents between Hutchinson Island and River Street. The ferries are an integral part of an intermodal transportation system ser­vicing the needs of Savannah area residents and visitors.

In 2004, Crossroads Business Center employers asked for bus service to reach employees for unfilled jobs. As a result, CAT added service to the #2 West Chatham route which carries people to the Crossroads Business Center as well as to the old airport and the Savannah/Hilton Head In­ternational Airport. Ridership on the #2 West Chatham has exceeded projections. Additionally in 2004, CAT installed one hundred bus shelters throughout the Transit District under CAT’s passenger amenities program which also included the installation of benches and trash receptacles. Installation of 25 more new shelters with benches and trash receptacles was planned for 2006.

Through a contract executed in 2005 with the City of Savannah, CAT now operates the successful Liberty Park­ing Shuttle on weekdays from the Liberty Parking Garage to other parking garages and major downtown destinations.

In 2006, CAT saw the delivery of five new 30 ft. and five new 35 ft. low-floor buses to replace buses ready for retirement. Also delivered were eight new replacement Teleride vans to transport people with disabilities. Discussions continued on the location and service characteristics of a downtown transit center. This project, begun in 1995, had met with various challenges causing the Federal Tran­sit Administration to re­quire thorough analysis of all feasible sites. CAT’s architect worked with an advisory committee to ad­dress the location, func­tion and role of the site as well as characteristics of both the interior and ex­terior of the facility. Once funding, location and pur­pose were identified and agreed upon, construction of this center would begin. A downtown transit station with a climate-controlled passenger waiting area and other passen­ger amenities could reduce bus traffic along Broughton Street and enhance service delivery for the entire community.

CAT’s stellar history continued to make strides in im­proving public transit services for Chatham County. From July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, CAT fixed route ridership was 3,520,337, an increase of 6.25 percent compared to the same time the year prior.

CAT has a major impact on the local economy by carry­ing people to work, to school, to medical appointments, and other activities. As part of the transportation development plan (TDP) completed in 2000, an on-board rider survey was con­ducted which indicated that 83% of riders use CAT to travel to work or to school (kindergarten through the university level). The collective income of employed riders who used CAT to commute was estimated to be $122,000,000. A second TDP completed in late 2006 yielded route improvement, technology and marketing recom­mendations as well as results of rider and telephone surveys. CAT’s future growth and direction was mapped out for the next five years, and as a result of the community’s input, the future called for different approaches to how we view public transit.

In 2009, CAT received a federal grant to purchase its first eleven hybrid buses. These buses improved fuel consumption, reduced exhaust emissions and provided a quieter and smooth­er ride for the transit passengers. Each bus was equipped with six on-board cameras and performed on battery power when traveling under 30 miles per hour. The addition of the hybrid buses to the fleet demonstrated CAT’s commitment to be a re­sponsible environmental partner in this community. 2009 also ushered the beginning of CAT’s new brand and progressive movement into the future.

2010-Present

In 2011, CAT continued its branding campaign. Discus­sions took place to, not only change the look of the buses, but the entire perception of Chatham Area Transit and local public transportation. A new website was designed, new uniforms were chosen for bus operators, and the mentality that CAT was operating as a bus company was beginning to change. CAT trans­ported more than 3.4 million people and began positioning itself as a regional mobility manager.

On February 29, 2012, CAT held a ground-breaking cer­emony for its first downtown intermodal center. The Joe Murray Rivers, Jr. Intermodal Transit Center will provide a climate-controlled waiting area with restroom facilities for transit customers, offer a central transfer point for better connec­tivity, and reduce existing traffic congestion, while allowing for more transit related parking, tourism and other downtown business opportunities. The project is expected to be complet­ed in 18–24 months. Almost simultaneously, reconstruction of CAT’s primary offices and facilities began. The ground-break­ing for the Operations & Maintenance Facility was held in May, 2012.

July 2012 brought the defeat of the T-SPLOST vote, a transportation sales tax initiative designed to fund infrastructure and transportation projects across Georgia as a countermeasure to declining federal and state funding. However, CAT staff continue to seek alternative funding sources through grants and state legislation efforts.

Other major project milestones for FY 2013 include collaborating with customers to revamp the Paratransit Plan and customer handbook to provide clearer guidelines and improve service; completing the data-collecting and community input stages of a new TDP in order to shape the next five years of CAT’s future; and progressing on the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) project, installing hardware and testing components.

CAT has also been focused on implementing the schedule changes necessary for the opening of the Transit Center. The introduction of a pulse system sets buses up to depart on easy-to-remember intervals such as on the hour, quarter after the hour, etc., and requires synchronized connections. Routing alterations are also needed for travel to the new Transit Center, and CAT has gradually introduced these changes to customers in October 2012 and April 2013 service updates.

CAT is progressively seeking to claim its true identity as this area’s regional mobility manager and will continue to focus on providing quality public transporta­tion services in a professional and responsive manner to the citizens of Savannah/Chatham County. Transit innovations and new technologies will play a major role in this destiny, and the resources must be in place to embrace them. The con­tinued support of our customers, stakeholders and community will be even more important. As our community grows and changes, so does CAT, because transportation is not an end but a means to success.

Chatham Area Transit Authority…Always on the Move!